When released, they bounce some more until they revert to the uncontacted state. They’re labeled F1, F2, F3, and on up to F11 and F12. The repertoire of glyphs engraved on the keys of a keyboard accords with national conventions and language needs. Alternatively, a tool is used for pressing small keys. Function keys may be used as single key commands (e.g., F5) or may be combined with one or more modifier keys … This serial keyboard cable communication is only bi-directional to the extent that the computer's electronics controls the illumination of the caps lock, num lock and scroll lock lights. A wireless keyboard may use industry standard Bluetooth radio communication, in which case the receiver may be built into the computer. The depth at which the plunger must be pressed for the contacts to close is known as the activation distance. Today's traditional PC keyboards have 12 function keys, F1 through F12. The quotation mark will only appear if both the required key and the Shift key are pressed. These accessories typically present characters on a display, in a layout that provides fast access to the more frequently used characters or character combinations. The development of the earliest computers incorporated electric typewriter keyboards: the development of the ENIAC computer incorporated a keypunch device as both the input and paper-based output device, while the BINAC computer also made use of an electromechanically controlled typewriter for both data entry onto magnetic tape (instead of paper) and data output.. The fastest typists (as of 2007) use a stenograph, a kind of chorded keyboard used by most court reporters and closed-caption reporters. Both keyboards built into computers and external ones may support backlighting; external backlit keyboards may have a wired USB connection, or be connected wirelessly and powered by batteries. Computer keyboards include control circuitry to convert key presses into key codes (usually scancodes) that the computer's electronics can understand. ", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, comparatively graphics-rich icons on screen, typographical symbols and punctuation marks, two-shot (or double-shot, or two-color) molding, "Bill Gates Says He's Sorry About Control-Alt-Delete", Microsoft Keyboard Scan Code Specification, Appendix C, "USB Keyboard/Keypad Page (0x07)", "Essay on Technology Advancements in Computer Interfaces", "Gallery: IBM: 100 Years of THINKing Big", "Past is prototype: The evolution of the computer keyboard", "Linear interface for graphical interface of touch-screen", "Master your keyboard - The ULTIMATE guide", "Full-size, TKL, 60% and more: a guide to mechanical keyboard sizes", "Specifications Wireless Multimedia Flexible Keyboard", "TrewGrip handheld keyboard almost a solution for thumb-typing", "10 ergonomic keyboards that actually do their job", Alpha Grip Programming and Productivity Improvement White Paper, The Alphagrip – The World's most Comfortable Ergonomic Keyboard for Typing and Programming, "Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort", "Hate Your Android Keyboard? Customized keyboards, with special buttons and features, seem to be the rule, not the exception. On Japanese/Korean keyboards, there may be Language input keys for changing the language to use. Most commonly the emitters and sensors are located in the perimeter, mounted on a small PCB. They are often used to facilitate data entry with smaller keyboards that do not have a numeric keypad, commonly those of laptop computers. In addition to the basic keyboard layout, your PC’s keyboard may have even more buttons, or it may be ergonomically designed, or whatever. The keyboard sends the key code to the keyboard driver running in the main computer; if the main computer is operating, it commands the light to turn on.  Speech recognition converts speech into machine-readable text (that is, a string of character codes). On another note, IBM was unique in using separate shells, or "keycaps", on keytop bases. Popular examples of this kind of input are Graffiti, Dasher and on-screen virtual keyboards. Wireless keyboards have become popular. A computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. As the key was depressed, the capacitance between the plunger pad and the patterns on the PCB below changed, which was detected by integrated circuits (IC). Many gaming keyboards are designed to have an aesthetic as well as functional appeal, with multiple colours, and colour-coded keys to make it easier for gamers to find command keys while playing in a dark room. Many of these keys will produce different symbols when modifier keys or shift keys are pressed. The use of contact-switch membrane sheets under the monoblock. The light is directed from side to side of the keyboard interior and it can only be blocked by the actuated keys. This gives the user the chance to prevent the keylogger from "phoning home" with his or her typed information. Wireless keyboards need batteries for power, and may be at risk of data eavesdropping. Another use is to type more symbols than appear to be available, for instance the apostrophe key is accompanied with a quotation mark on the top. ", The use of any keyboard may cause serious injury (that is, carpal tunnel syndrome or other repetitive strain injury) to hands, wrists, arms, neck or back. For example, Alt+F4 in Microsoft Windows will close the program in an active window.  Handheld keyboards allow the user the ability to move around a room or to lean back on a chair while also being able to type in front or away from the computer.
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