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Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Vol. Hurlbert 1978) that have still to be ported to the HSM world (but see Sattler et al. Neutral theory paints a picture of biodiversity in the former sense, while niche theory, with detailed models for specific systems, pictures it in the latter sense. Biodiversity Community ecology Neutral theory Niche model Emergent pattern Speciation rate Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s12080-011-0113-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Modern niche theory has bridged these early niche concepts to consider both species responses to, and influences on, ecosystems (Leibold 1995, 1996, Chase and Leibold 2003). Stochastic niche theory resolves many of the differences between neutral theory and classical tradeoff-based niche theories of resource competition and community structure. 2007). Our theory can be explicitly extended to multiple environmental variables and corresponding taxon niche positions, quantifying how the distribution of the niche hypervolumes of taxa, sensu Hutchinson , shapes diversity patterns (see the electronic supplementary material for derivations). Niche Theory. The niche partitioning theory is central to our understanding of biodiversity. Niche theory provides stunningly beautiful details, but much of the canvas is still blank and it is not even clear how large the canvas really is. In stochastic niche theory, invading species become established only if propagules can survive stochastic mortality while growing to maturity on the resources left unconsumed by established species. Similarly, few HSM studies have yet addressed issues of species assemblage, and they often make strong, dubious simplifications (e.g. In particular, niche theory provides many niche overlap measures (e.g. To make an explicit link between theory on the causes and consequences of biodiversity, we define in a precise way two kinds of differences among species: niche differences, which promote coexistence, and relative fitness differences, which promote competitive exclusion. Niche theory as an integrative framework for surrogates The term niche partitioning refers to the process by which natural selection drives competing species into different patterns of resource use or different niches (Hector and Hooper, 2002; MacArhur, 1958). The niche concept encapsulates the idea of limits and constraints to species, and we argue this might be an effective way to begin linking ecological theory with biodiversity surrogates. equilibrium, niche conservatism). 3. 3:107-132 (Volume publication date November 1972) ... Abstract The literature on effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity is huge.

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