If a red, orange, or yellow precipitate forms, the test is positive. If the alcohol is primary, it will simply dissolve in the reagent. Formation of a yellow precipitate is a positive test. Iodoform test – methyl ketonesThis test is used to identify methyl ketones (ketones with a methyl group on one end). Solubility testscan suggest the size and polarity of an unknown compound and the presence of basic or acidic functional groups. The amount of water or ethanol used to dissolve the acid is not important. Bromine test – alkenes and alkynesIn this test the alkene or alkyne reacts with Br2 to form an alkyl dibromide, which causes the orange-brown of the Br2 to disappear. If you have one of these functional groups, you must rely on spectral data to determine the functional groups. Which it is first formed it appears cloudy because it is immiscible with water; eventually it separates to form an other layer. This test involves oxidation of ferrous hydroxide (whitish blue solid) to ferric hydroxide (red brown solid) by the nitro group. Add 3 drops of 0.02 M KMnO4 solution. 2. Ketones cannot be oxidized, so this is a good way to distinguish ketones from aldehydes. If the test is positive, the crystals will dissolve in the unknown, giving a reddish-purple color. Procedure: Add about 2 drops of a liquid unknown to 0.5 ml of Lucas reagent in a small vial. If the solution turns a red to purple color, the test is positive. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein solution. The test is. can send it to you via email. Shake vigorously and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Shake vigorously, then allow to stand at room temperature. Ferrox test any functional group containing oxygen reddish-purple color Hydroxamate test amides and esters red-purple color appears Iodoform test methyl ketones yellow precipitate ron hydroxide test nitro groups red-brown precipitate Jones test 1o and 2o alcohols orange reagent turns blue-green Lucas test 2o, 3o, and benzylic alcohols cloudy solution or separate layer Tollen’s test aldehydes silver mirror forms Note: There are no chemical tests in this lab for amines, nitriles, or alkyl halides. Formation of a silver coating on the outside of the test tube is a positive test. Easilyoxidized alcohols may also give a positive test.Procedure: Add 0.5 ml of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent to a small vial. If your results do not match what you expected, use your judgment to determine if you should ignore the results or rethink your interpretation of the spectra. It may also give a positive test for aryl amines, aldehydes, and alcohols, which can also be oxidized. 89 v. Department of Education, Zenith Radio Corporation v. United States, GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY website. Determine the ml of base needed for the pink color to persist as accurately as possible. Other functional groups in the compound may interfere with this reaction. Phenols do not react (or give an unusual reaction) in this test. Measurement of physical propertiesincludes determining refractive index, boiling points, melting points, and density. to about 10 mg (if a solid) or 2 drops (if a liquid) of the unknown. Some cover two related functional groups (such as the bromine test for alkenes and alkynes), while other only a specific subcategory of that functional group (such as the iodoform test for methyl ketones). Since IR and NMR spectroscopy has been developed, they are no longer critical to unknown analysis, but they can still be useful for confirming what you have determined by spectroscopy. Allow to stand up to 15 minutes. In some cases there can be false positives (compounds which do not have the functional group still give a result test) or false negatives (compounds which have the functional group give a negative result). Baeyer test – alkenes and alkynesIn this test the alkene or alkyne is oxidized to a diol (alkene) or diketone (alkyne), which uses up the purple permanganate solution and produces manganese dioxide, a brown precipitate. Then add a few more drops of NaOH to get rid of the iodine color. If the purple color disappears and a brown precipitate is formed, the test is positive. ), Dinitrophenylhydrazine test – aldehydes and ketonesIn this test an insoluble hydrazone derivative is formed. Neutralization equivalent – carboxylic acids, Strictly speaking, this is not a functional group test, but rather a titration to determine the number of moles of acid in a given mass of the compound. Procedure: Add 0.5 ml of 5% ferrous ammonium sulfate (solution must be a pale blue color – if red, it has already oxidized and is not good!) Please, specify your valid email address, Remember that this is just a sample essay and since it might not be original, we do not recommend to submit it. Since IR and NMR spectroscopy has been developed, they are no longer critical to unknown analysis, but they can still be useful for confirming what you have determined by spectroscopy. The test does not work well on solid alcohols because they do not easily dissolve in the first place, and multifunctional compounds may give unusual results. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? Then add about 10 mg (if solid) or 2 drops (if liquid) of the unknown and shake well. To get an idea of how far off is reasonable, calculate backwards to figure out how many ml of base would be required to neutralize the acid if it had the MW you were expecting. Tollen’s test – aldehydesIn this test the aldehyde is oxidized to a carboxylic acid, reducing silver ions to silver metal. Allow to stand at room temperature for 15 minutes. This reaction is also the basis for the breathalyzer test for drunk drivers. Formation of a red-brown precipitate is a positive test; if a blue-green precipitate forms, the test is negative. All class tests must be done in triplicate: known, unknown, and blank. Using a stir plate is helpful both to stir the solution and have a white background. The test is positive with secondary, tertiary or benzylic alcohols but negative with primary alcohols. After mixing, add 1 drop of 3 M sulfuric acid followed by 10 drops of 2 M KOH in methanol. Since IR and NMR spectroscopy has been developed, they are no longer critical to unknown analysis, but they can still be useful for confirming what you have determined by spectroscopy. Procedure: On a dry spot plate, grind one crystal of ferric ammonium sulfate and a crystal of potassium thiocyanate using a glass rod. Summary of functional group tests, test functional group positive resultclear purple sol ution turns to brown precipitate Baeyer test alkenes and alkynes Bromine test alkenes and alkynes brown color disappears Dinitrophenylhydrazine test aldehydes and ketones yellow to orange red precipitate. Allow to stand at room temperature for ten minutes. Chemical tests for unknown functional groups Chemical tests have been developed as a means of identifying what functional groups are present in an unknown compound. Security, Unique Procedure: Dissolve about 10 mg (if solid) or 2 drops (if liquid) of unknown in 0.8 ml of acetone in a small vial. No. Activated aromatic rings give a false positive in this test. 30 mg of your compound in 1 mL of solution to give you a 3%... Class tests. Procedure: Dissolve about 10 mg (if solid) or 2 drops (if liquid) of the unknown in about .5 ml of acetone on a spot plate. FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE, Chemical Tests for Unknown Functional Groups, Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau…, Zuni Public School Dist. It is essential to use standardized base, which has a very exact. Secondaryalcohols will give a cloudy solution and/or separate layer after 2-5 minutes. Add 4 drops of 2% Br2 in dichloromethane solution. 1. This will be immediate with alkenes, but may take a short while with alkynes. positive for both aldehydes and ketones, but not usually for esters. concentration (such as 1.0001 M), and to measure the mass of the carboxylic acid and ml of base as carefully as possible. Heat to reflux for 5 minutes, cool to room temperature, and add 2-5 drops of 5% ferric chloride. Place 2 drops of the unknown in a separate well. Procedure: Accurately weigh about 50 mg of the unknown and dissolve it in 15-20 ml of a water/ethanol mixture (most acids have too much hydrocarbon in them to dissolve well in water alone). Jones test – alcoholsThe Jones reagent contains CrO3 in sulfuric acid solution, which oxidizes primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols to ketones. Tertiary, benzylic, or allylic alcohols will give a cloudy solution and/or a separate layer almost immediately. Lucas test – alcoholsThe Lucas reagent contains ZnCl2 in aqueous HCl, which reacts with some alcohols in an SN1 reaction to produce an alkyl chloride.